Vedutas

Rohbock’s vedutas. A captured place.

In view of the classicistical requirement for truthfulness and preciseness, especially in capturing something genuinely seen, we can speak about the first realistic „portraits“ of towns and natural sceneries. In addition to them, there were also romanticised and fabulous landscapes. The authors of realistic-cum-descriptive vedutas used to search for most appropriate places and views, which the surrounding country, urban or natural, would look most captivating from. Many such specialists –landscapists – often travelled to far away regions just to capture an important place or sights which had been generally little known or not at all yet. Even in Spiš there was a significant group of painters, as early as the late 18th century, who had been enchanted by the local nature that would have an impact on their work for quite some time.
The demand for the ever more popular topographical and travel literature prompted also the production of illustrations. Painted exact depictions (especially water colours) of described towns, castles, spas and mountains were subsequently transformed into graphics, most frequently lithography or steel engravings which, due to their ability of multiple reproductions, suited the requirement of a higher edition number of printed publications. Local and national history writings quickly found their supporters also among the readers of the contemporary Austro-Hungarian monarchy. With graphic sheets, they could discover individual regions of their homeland also visually. In the course of the 16th and the 17th centuries there appeared a whole range of views on some localities in the territory of today’s Slovakia. However, the most interesting ones at that time were the important fortresses in the defensive anti-Turkish line. Spiš towns and castles, therefore, often lacked their depictions until the late 18th or even the 19th centuries.
The presented set of seven views on selected Spiš localities was created by the German landscapist and graphic designer Ludwig Rohbock around the mid 19th century. Johann Richter, Adrián Fesca, Franz Hablitschek, Georg Michael Kurz, Joseph Maximilian Kolb and Wiliam Knopfmacher then engraved them onto steel plates. The collection of steel engravings was part of the second volume (1963) of the three volume topographical publication (1956 – 1964) by Johann (János) Hunfalvy entitled „Ungarn und Siebenbürgen in malerischen Originalansichten“ (Hungary and Transylvania in Pictureques Original Postcards) and together with other localities of present day Slovakia was enclosed, as a pictorial supplement, to the text describing a given locality. The steel engravings were made in Gustav Georg Lange publishing house in Darmstadt (in the centre below the image: Druck & Verlag v. G. G. Lange in Darmstadt). A little further down one can see the address of the seller: Lauffer és Stolp bizományában Pesten.
Rohbock’s vedutas follow and re-create the tradition of the Spiš landscape art of the early half of the 19th century which was dominated by such personalities as John Jacob Müller, Charles Marko, the Elder, Joseph Czauczik or Charles Tibély. In contrast to previous centuries, where only a small quantum of vedutas depicting Spiš towns and landscapes is known, around the mid 19th century their number is rapidly increasing. Worth mentioning is, e.g., the spa town of Starý (Old) Smokovec which had been „portrayed“ before Rohbock (around 1860) by Charles Tibély and Jacob Alt in the years 1834 and 1838, roughly at the same time (around 1859) also by Theodor Boemm and, after him, by Ľudovít Libay together with Rudolf Alt (1861). The works of Libay, Alt, Boemm and Rohbock are compositionally very similar, as Rohbock painted Smokovec from the main road and the remaining two views were carried out from the nearby Charles’s bryony.

Light bearer 2

Unknown medieval sculptor. Angel, the light bearer

around 1500
lime wood, partially preserved original polychromy, height 72 cm
restored by Anna Svetková in the years 2013-2014

Unknown medieval sculptor. Angel, the light bearer

around 1500
lime wood, partially preserved original polychromy, height 77,5 cm
restored by Anna Svetková in the years 2017-2018

Angels, light bearers, as an iconographical type between a statue and a liturgical object (candlestick) used to be part of church furnishings since the Middle Ages. They usually held the candlestick in an adoration gesture, therefore these iconographical types of angels are often found in pairs, as pendants, in the liturgical space. According to the information obtained by the seller, the statues were found in Bijacovce in Spiš.

Light bearer

Let there be light

The figures of angels used to be an important part of the medieval artistic world. Their shape had been formed under the influence of biblical texts, theological opinions and documents right from the early stages of Christianity. The oldest sections of the Old Testament present angels as personifications of God’s revelation. In the late Jewish tradition a more precise teaching on angels as a „heaven’s army“, including the service in the heavenly kingdom, where angels have important functions, had been created. Their role is to invoke and praise God and constantly perform his will. The word angel itself clarifies their role as intermediaries between God and men, as God’s instruments in the God’s guidance of the world. The world angel comes from the Greek angelos, meaning a messenger and corresponds also to the Hebrew expression malak, which has the same meaning and appears in the Old Testament. The 5th century document by Pseudo-Dionysius the Areopagite „Di Coelesti Hierarchia“ on the celestial hierarchy had a decisive impact on the formation of medieval ideas and belief in these creatures. This teaching laid the foundations of ideas on the courtly service that the angels perform in the heavenly kingdom. In these visions the angels had two duties – to praise and celebrate God and to provide a procession to his heavenly majesty, or perform the duties which, in earthly liturgy, were carried out by lower clergy. Such thoughts were spreading from the Byzantine court ceremonial and had an important role in the development of liturgical rituals. Angels with liturgical objects – candles, candlesticks, censers and aspersoria were depicted in European art as early as the 13th century. It was not an invention of the late Gothic, as is often claimed, however, it was in the 15th century that the depiction of angels carrying a candlestick had become a very popular motif.
Among the uniquely preserved examples of angels as light bearers in the artistic environment of the late Gothic in Spiš there is also a pair of statues that the museum has obtained into its collections. When the first statue of an angel, a light bearer, was purchased in 2012, we thought that it was a solo preserved specific object which could have originally had a pendant that, however, had not been preserved. Three years later (2015) an offer came to buy the second statue of an angel, a light bearer, and so it was possible to put together the pair of statues – candlesticks – which had originally been one unit. Similar works have rarely been preserved in the medieval Spiš art, although originally there must have been a large number of them in local churches.